// ॐ श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः // // हरिः ॐ //
//ॐ सहनाववतु, सहनौ भुनक्तु सह वीर्यम् करवावहै |
/ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः /
:: SHAD-DARSHANA 2: NYAYA ::...
:: Why we need Philosophy? ::
It always happens that once the basic necessities of life are satisfied and the normal struggles of living are won over, the human being starts wondering what the purpose and meaning of life is? The result of such an enquiry is philosophy.
The Indian mystics found the answers to all questions by undertaking their search within oneself rather than outside. They went to the extent of experiencing such results of their enquiry which gave them an intuitive capability to acquire a clearer and deeper understanding of the meaning and goal of human life. It is because of this special perception their thoughts are called darshana which actually means vision or realization of the Self. These illuminating thoughts of the seers came to be popularly known as systems of Indian philosophy.
All the darshanas or systems of philosophy discovered that in spite of all the best efforts put in by man, his life is full more of misery than bliss. Hence finding out the means to escape from the clutches of grief and despair of human existence, once and for all, became the main goal of their endeavors.
The Six systems of Orthodox Indian Philosophy that accepts the Autority of the Vedas. The Shad-darshanas are:
5. Purva Mimamsa
6. Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta.
They generally deal with four topics:
1. Existence and nature of Brahman
2. Nature of the jiva or the individual soul
3. Creation of the jagat or the world.
4. Moksha or liberation and the disciplines that lead to it.
Let us now learn about Shaddarshana 2 i.e. NYAYA….Darshana:
Almost all the branches of Indian philosophy deal with two subjects viz. pramanas or valid sources of knowledge and prameyas or things to be known from them. Since Nyaya Darshana gives priority to the first subject, thereby … laying the foundation for Logic, it is also called Nyaya Vidya or Tarka Sastra. The system derives its name from the word Nyaya that meant ‘argumentation’ and indirectly indicates an analytical and logical methodology adopted by it for drawing its conclusions.
The Nyaya School of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were written by Sage Gautama. The most important contribution made by the Nyaya school to modern Hindu thought is its
“methodology”. This methodology is based on a system of logic that has subsequently been adopted by most of the other Indian Schools.The followers of Nyaya believed that …OBTAINING VALID KNOWLEDGE….WAS THE ONLY WAY to OBTAIN RELEASE from SUFFERING. They therefore, took great pains to identify valid
sources of knowledge and to distinguish these from mere false opinions.
According to the Nyaya school, there are four sources of knowledge (pramanas):
1. perception (pratyaksha),
3.comparison (upamana) ..and
4.verbal testimony (shabda).
Knowledge obtained through each of these can, of course, still be either valid or invalid. As a result, Nyaya scholars again went to great pains to identify, in each case, what it took to make knowledge valid, creating in the process a number of explanatory schemes based on PURE LOGIC.
The Nyaya philosophy's another important achievement was to prove the existence of God (one Supreme God, called Ishwara), mostly by logic, in answer to repeated attempts by Buddhists to disprove the existence of God.
Direct Perception, called Pratyaksha, occupies the foremost position in the Nyaya epistemology. When a sense organ comes into contact with a sense object it produces a true, clear and an unerring knowledge of the object perceived which is termed as direct perception.
Inference, called Anumana, is knowledge of an object based on the knowledge of another object.
Comparison, which is Upamana, is the knowledge produced by a given description of an object which is already known. Verbal Testimony or Word, or Shabda is also accepted as a pramana.
It can be of two types, VAIDIKA (Vedic), which are the words of the four sacred Vedas, and are described as the Word of God, and LAUKIKA, or words and writings of trustworthy human beings.
:: Nyaya: Proof for God ::
Early Naiyanikas wrote very little about God, i.e., Ishvara (the Supreme Lord). However, when Buddhists became atheistic from agnostic,…. the later Naiyanikas entered into disputes with the Buddhists and tried to prove the existence of God through logic. They made this question a challenge to their own existence and gave the following nine proofs for the existence of God.
Karyat (from effect): An effect is produced by a cause, and similarly, the universe must also have a cause. Causes (according to Naiyanikas) are of three kinds - Samavayi (in case of the universe, the atoms), Asamavayi (the association of atoms) and Nimitta (efficient cause which is Ishvara). The efficient cause of the world must have an absolute knowledge of all the materials of creation, and hence it must be God. Hence from the creation, the existence of the Creator is proved.
Aayojanaat (from combination): Atoms are inactive and properties are unphysical. So it must be God who creates the world with his will by causing the atoms to join. Self-combination of inanimate and lifeless things is not possible as otherwise atoms would only combine at random, creating chaos. Hence there is an invisible
hand of a “wise organizer” behind the systematic grouping of the ultimate atoms into molecules. Such a WISE and FINAL ORGANIZER is GOD.
Dhrite (from support): Just as a material thing falls off without a support, similarly, God is the supporter and bearer of this world, without which the world would not have remained, integrated. This universe is hence superintended within God, which proves his existence.
Padat (from word): Every word has the capability to represent a certain object. It is the will of God that a thing should be represented by a certain word. Similarly, we can not have any knowledge of the different things of the world, UNLESS there is a SOURCE of knowledge. The origin of all knowledge should therefore be from an omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent entity. Such a being is not to be seen in this universe, and so it must be outside it. This being is God.
Pratyatah (from faith): The Vedas, are regarded as the source of eternal knowledge. Their knowledge is free from fallacies and are widely believed as a source of proof. Their authors cannot be human beings because human knowledge is limited. They cannot obtain knowledge of past, present and future and in-depth knowledge of mind. Hence only God can be the creator of the Vedas. Hence his existence is proved from his being the author of the Vedas, which he revealed to various sages over a period of time.
Shruteh (from scriptures): The Shrutis, i.e., the Vedas extol God and talk about his existence. "He is the lord of all subjects, omniscient and knower of one's internal feelings; He is the creator, cause and destroyer of the world", say the Shrutis. Since the Shrutis are regarded as a source of proof by Naiyanikas, the existence of God is proved.
Vakyat (from precepts): Again, the Veda must have been produced by a person because it has the nature of "sentences,", in other words, the sentences of the Veda were produced by a person just as the sentences of human beings. That person must have been God.
Samkhyaavisheshaat (from the specialty of numbers): The size of a molecule depends on the number of the atoms that go to constitute it. This requisite number of the atoms that go to form a particular compound could not have been originally the object of the perception of any human being; so its contemplator must be God.
Adrishtaat (from the unforseen): It is seen that some people in this world are happy, some are in misery. Some are rich and some poor. The Naiyanikas explain this by the CONCEPT of KARMA and REINCARNATION. The fruit of an individual's actions does not always lie within the reach of the individual who is the agent. There ought to be, therefore, a dispenser of the fruits of actions, and this SUPREME DISPENSOR is God.
Nyaya Darshana is the basis of all Sanskrit philosophical studies. A study of Nyaya DEVELOPS the power of reasoning and logic. It renders the intellect sharp and subtle. One cannot understand the nuances of Brahma
Sutras of Sage Veda Vyasa without the knowledge of the Nyaya darshana
//Om AsatOma sadgamaya tamasOma jyotirgamaya mrityOmA amritangamaya Om shantih shantih shantihi//
- from the desk of Usha Swarup
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